Go to content Go to navigation Go to search

Morale · 1126 dagen geleden by Ad van den Ende

“Xenophon accompanied the Ten Thousand, a large army of Greek mercenaries hired by Cyrus the Younger, who intended to seize the throne of Persia from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Though Cyrus’ mixed army fought to a tactical victory at Cunaxa in Babylon (401 BC), Cyrus himself was killed in the battle, rendering the actions of the Greeks irrelevant and the expedition a failure.
Stranded deep in enemy territory, the Spartan general Clearchus and the other Greek senior officers were subsequently killed or captured by treachery on the part of the Persian satrap Tissaphernes.” (Wikipedia)

3.1.2] Ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ στρατηγοὶ συνειλημμένοι ἦσαν
After the generals had been seized,
καὶ τῶν λοχαγῶν καὶ τῶν στρατιωτῶν
and out of the captains and soldiers
οἱ συνεπόμενοι
they who had gone with (them)
ἀπωλώλεσαν,
had been killed,
ἐν πολλῆι δὴ ἀπορίαι ἦσαν οἱ Ἕλληνες,
the Hellenes of course were in great embarrassment,,
ἐννοούμενοι ὅτι ἐπὶ ταῖς βασιλέως θύραις ἦσαν,
realizing that they were at the king’s gates,
κύκλωι δὲ αὐτοῖς πάντηι
and on every side environing them
πολλὰ καὶ ἔθνη καὶ πόλεις πολέμιαι ἦσαν,
were many hostile tribes and cities,
ἀγορὰν δὲ οὐδεὶς ἔτι παρέξειν ἔμελλεν, with a market nobody would yet furnish them,
ἀπεῖχον δὲ τῆς Ἑλλάδος
from Hellas separated them
οὐ μεῖον ἢ μύρια στάδια,
not less than a thousand stadiums,

ἡγεμὼν δ᾽ οὐδεὶς τῆς ὁδοῦ ἦν,
nobody was a guide for the way.
ποταμοὶ δὲ διεῖργον ἀδιάβατοι
impassable rivers separated them
ἐν μέσωι τῆς οἴκαδε ὁδοῦ,
in the middle of the way to home,
προυδεδώκεσαν δὲ αὐτοὺς
betrayed had them
καὶ οἱ σὺν Κύρωι ἀναβάντες βάρβαροι,
even the barbarians who had gone together with Cyrus,
μόνοι δὲ καταλελειμμένοι ἦσαν
they were left alone,

οὐδὲ ἱππέα οὐδένα σύμμαχον ἔχοντες,
not having even a single horseman as ally,
ὥστε εὔδηλον ἦν ὅτι νικῶντες
so that it was perfectly plain that if they won a battle,
μὲν οὐδένα ἂν κατακάνοιεν,
they would kill nobody,
ἡττηθέντων δὲ αὐτῶν
but if they were beaten themselves,
οὐδεὶς ἂν λειφθείη·
nobody would survive.

[3.1.3] ταῦτ᾽ ἐννοούμενοι
That realizing
καὶ ἀθύμως ἔχοντες
and without spirit being
ὀλίγοι μὲν αὐτῶν εἰς τὴν ἑσπέραν σίτου ἐγεύσαντο,
but few of them tasted food that evening;

ὀλίγοι δὲ πῦρ ἀνέκαυσαν,
but few of them kindled even a fire,
ἐπὶ δὲ τὰ ὅπλα πολλοὶ οὐκ ἦλθον ταύτην τὴν νύκτα,
and into camp many did not come that night,
ἀνεπαύοντο δὲ ὅπου ἐτύγχανον ἕκαστος,
but they took their rest where each chanced to be,
οὐ δυνάμενοι καθεύδειν
not being able to sleep
ὑπὸ λύπης καὶ πόθου πατρίδων,
for very pain and longing for their fatherlands,
γονέων, γυναικῶν, παίδων,
parents, wives, children,
οὓς οὔποτ᾽ ἐνόμιζον ἔτι ὄψεσθαι.
whom they never expected to see again.

οὕτω μὲν δὴ διακείμενοι
Being in such disposition
πάντες ἀνεπαύοντο.
all tried to seek repose.

[3.1.4] ἦν δέ τις ἐν τῆι στρατιᾶι
Now there was a man in the army,
Ξενοφῶν Ἀθηναῖος,
Xenophon, an Athenian,

ὃς οὔτε στρατηγὸς οὔτε λοχαγὸς
who neither a general, nor an officer,
οὔτε στρατιώτης ὢν συνηκολούθει,
nor a soldier being accompanied (Cyrus),

ἀλλὰ Πρόξενος αὐτὸν μετεπέμψατο οἴκοθεν
but Proxenus had invitated him him from home,
ξένος ὢν ἀρχαῖος·
being an old friend.

ὑπισχνεῖτο δὲ αὐτῶι,
He promised him,
εἰ ἔλθοι,
if he would come,
φίλον αὐτὸν Κύρωι ποιήσειν,
that he would make him a friend of Cyrus,
ὃν αὐτὸς ἔφη
whom he said
κρείττω ἑαυτῶι νομίζειν
to consider more important for him
τῆς πατρίδος.
than his fatherland.

[3.1.11] ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀπορία ἦν,
And now there was embarrassment,
ἐλυπεῖτο μὲν σὺν τοῖς ἄλλοις
he was sad, , with the others,

καὶ οὐκ ἐδύνατο καθεύδειν·
and could not sleep;
μικρὸν δ᾽ ὕπνου λαχὼν εἶδεν ὄναρ.
but, getting a little sleep, he saw a dream.

ἔδοξεν αὐτῶι βροντῆς γενομένης
It seemed to him, when thunder had come,
σκηπτὸς πεσεῖν εἰς τὴν πατρἠιαν οἰκίαν,
that a bolt fell on his father’s house,
καὶ ἐκ τούτου λάμπεσθαι πᾶσα.
and that it thereupon as a whole was burning.

[3.1.12] περίφοβος δ᾽ εὐθὺς ἀνηγέρθη,
Much terrified he at once awoke,
καὶ τὸ ὄναρ τῆι μὲν ἔκρινεν ἀγαθόν,
and the dream in one way he judged good,
ὅτι ἐν πόνοις ὢν καὶ κινδύνοις
because being in miseries and dangers
φῶς μέγα ἐκ Διὸς ἰδεῖν ἔδοξε·
he thought to have seen a great light from Zeus,

τῆι δὲ καὶ ἐφοβεῖτο,
but partly too he feared it,
ὅτι ἀπὸ Διὸς μὲν βασιλέως
for from Zeus the king
τὸ ὄναρ ἐδόκει αὐτῶι εἶναι,
the dream seemed him to be,

κύκλωι δὲ ἐδόκει λάμπεσθαι τὸ πῦρ,
and all around seemed the fire to burn;
μὴ οὐ δύναιτο
what could that mean but that he could not
ἐκ τῆς χώρας ἐξελθεῖν τῆς βασιλέως,
escape from the country of the king,
ἀλλ᾽ εἴργοιτο πάντοθεν
but that he might be hemmed in in every direction
ὑπό τινων ἀποριῶν.
by various obstacles?

[3.1.13] ὁποῖόν τι μὲν δὴ ἐστὶ τὸ τοιοῦτον ὄναρ ἰδεῖν
What sort however it is to see such a dream
ἔξεστι σκοπεῖν
one may see
ἐκ τῶν συμβάντων μετὰ τὸ ὄναρ.
from what happened after the dream.
γίγνεται γὰρ τάδε.
For there happens this.

εὐθὺς ἐπειδὴ ἀνηγέρθη
As soon as he awoke,
πρῶτον μὲν ἔννοια αὐτῶι ἐμπίπτει·
first of all the thought fell in him:
τί κατάκειμαι; ἡ δὲ νὺξ προβαίνει·
why do I lie (here)? The night advances;
ἅμα δὲ τῆι ἡμέραι with the day
εἰκὸς τοὺς πολεμίους ἥξειν.
it is likely that the enemyies will come.

εἰ δὲ γενησόμεθα ἐπὶ βασιλεῖ,
If we should fall into the power of the king,
τί ἐμποδὼν μὴ οὐχὶ
what prevents that we,
πάντα μὲν τὰ χαλεπώτατα ἐπιδόντας,
the most horrible things having seen,
πάντα δὲ τὰ δεινότατα παθόντας
and all the most fearful things having sufferd,
ὑβριζομένους ἀποθανεῖν;
being maltreated will dy?

[3.1.14] ὅπως δ᾽ ἀμυνούμεθα
How we will defend ourselves
οὐδεὶς παρασκευάζεται οὐδὲ ἐπιμελεῖται,
no one is preparing nor cares,
ἀλλὰ κατακείμεθα ὥσπερ ἐξὸν ἡσυχίαν ἄγειν.
but we lie, as though we could afford to take rest.

ἐγὼ οὖν τὸν ἐκ ποίας πόλεως
Take myself, from what city
στρατηγὸν προσδοκῶ ταῦτα πράξειν;
do I exspect a general to do that?

ποίαν δ᾽ ἡλικίαν ἐμαυτῶι ἐλθεῖν ἀναμείνω;
What age do I await for me to come?
οὐ γὰρ ἔγωγ᾽ ἔτι πρεσβύτερος ἔσομαι,
older I shall not be
ἐὰν τήμερον προδῶ ἐμαυτὸν τοῖς πολεμίοις.
if to-day I betray myself to the enemies.

[3.1.15] ἐκ τούτου ἀνίσταται
Thereupon he gets up
καὶ συγκαλεῖ τοὺς Προξένου πρῶτον λοχαγούς.
and calls together first the leaders of Proxenus.

ἐπεὶ δὲ συνῆλθον, ἔλεξεν·
And when they had gathered, he said:
«ἐγώ, ὦ ἄνδρες λοχαγοί, οὔτε καθεύδειν δύναμαι,
“I, sirs, leaders, I cannot sleep,
ὥσπερ οἶμαι οὐδ᾽ ὑμεῖς,
nor can you, as I suppose,
οὔτε κατακεῖσθαι ἔτι,
nor lie here longer,
ὁρῶν ἐν οἵοις ἐσμέν.
seeing in what situation we are.

[3.1.16] οἱ μὲν γὰρ πολέμιοι δῆλον
For the enemies, we may be sure
ὅτι οὐ πρότερον πρὸς ἡμᾶς τὸν πόλεμον ἐξέφηναν
that they did not sooner open war upon us
πρὶν ἐνόμισαν καλῶς τὰ ἑαυτῶν παρασκευάσασθαι,
till they felt they had their things well prepared;

ἡμῶν δ᾽ οὐδεὶς οὐδὲν ἀντεπιμελεῖται
yet none of us makes counter-preparations
ὅπως ὡς κάλλιστα ἀγωνιούμεθα.
that we may fight as good as possible.

[3.1.17] καὶ μὴν εἰ ὑφησόμεθα
Really, if we give in
καὶ ἐπὶ βασιλεῖ γενησόμεθα,
and fall into the king’s power,
τί οἰόμεθα πείσεσθαι;
what do we think we will experience?

ὃς καὶ τοῦ ὁμομητρίου ἀδελφοῦ
He, who from his brother, the son of the same mother,
καὶ τεθνηκότος ἤδη
even allready dead,
ἀποτεμὼν τὴν κεφαλὴν καὶ τὴν χεῖρα
having cut off the head and the hand,
ἀνεσταύρωσεν·
him cucified.

ἡμᾶς δέ, οἷς κηδεμὼν μὲν οὐδεὶς πάρεστιν,
And we, for whom nobody is a protector,
ἐστρατεύσαμεν δὲ ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν
we marched against him
ὡς δοῦλον ἀντὶ βασιλέως ποιήσοντες
to make a slave of him instead of a king,
καὶ ἀποκτενοῦντες εἰ δυναίμεθα,
and to kill him if we could,
τί ἂν οἰόμεθα παθεῖν;
what do we think to experience?

[3.1.18] ἆρ᾽ οὐκ ἂν ἐπὶ πᾶν ἔλθοι
Will he not go all lengths
ὡς ἡμᾶς τὰ ἔσχατα αἰκισάμενος
so that, having maltreated us with extreme tortures,
πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις φόβον παράσχοι
he may rouse in all men a great fright
τοῦ στρατεῦσαί ποτε ἐπ᾽ αὐτόν;
of ever marching against him?

ἀλλ᾽ ὅπως τοι μὴ ἐπ᾽ ἐκείνωι γενησόμεθα
But that we not will come in his power
πάντα ποιητέον.
everything has to be done.

[3.1.19] ἐγὼ μὲν οὖν ἔστε μὲν αἱ σπονδαὶ ἦσαν
As to me, all the while the truce lasted,
οὔποτε ἐπαυόμην ἡμᾶς μὲν οἰκτίρων,
I never ceased pitying ourselves,
βασιλέα δὲ καὶ τοὺς σὺν αὐτῶι μακαρίζων,
the king and those with him calling happy,
διαθεώμενος αὐτῶν ὅσην μὲν χώραν καὶ οἵαν ἔχοιεν,
surveying of them how great and of what kind of land they have,
ὡς δὲ ἄφθονα τὰ ἐπιτήδεια,
how abundant provisions,
ὅσους δὲ θεράποντας, ὅσα δὲ κτήνη,
how many servants, how much cattle,
χρυσὸν δέ, ἐσθῆτα δέ·
gold and garments.

[3.1.20] τὰ δ᾽ αὖ τῶν στρατιωτῶν ὁπότε ἐνθυμοίμην,
The position of the soldiers, whenever I thought over it,
ὅτι τῶν μὲν ἀγαθῶν τούτων οὐδενὸς ἡμῖν μετείη,
that we of these good things did not have a claim,
εἰ μὴ πριαίμεθα,
if not we bought it,
ὅτου δ᾽ ὠνησόμεθα
but with what we should buy,
ἤιδειν ἔτι ὀλίγους ἔχοντας,
I knew that still but a few it had,

ἄλλως δέ πως πορίζεσθαι τὰ ἐπιτήδεια
and otherwise to provide ourselves with the supplies
ἢ ὠνουμένους ὅρκους ἤιδη κατέχοντας ἡμᾶς·
than buying I knew that oaths did withhold us.

ταῦτ᾽ οὖν λογιζόμενος ἐνίοτε
That considering sometimes
τὰς σπονδὰς μᾶλλον ἐφοβούμην
I feared the armistice more
ἢ νῦν τὸν πόλεμον.
than now the war.

[3.1.21] ἐπεὶ μέντοι ἐκεῖνοι ἔλυσαν τὰς σπονδάς,
Now, however, that they broke the armistice
λελύσθαι μοι δοκεῖ καὶ ἡ ἐκείνων ὕβρις
has been broken, in my opinion, also their insolence
καὶ ἡ ἡμετέρα ὑποψία.
and (the foundation of) our jealousy.

ἐν μέσωι γὰρ ἤδη κεῖται ταῦτα τὰ ἀγαθὰ ἆθλα
In the midst lie now all these good things as prizes,
ὁπότεροι ἂν ἡμῶν ἄνδρες ἀμείνονες ὦσιν,
who of us are the better men,
ἀγωνοθέται δ᾽ οἱ θεοί εἰσιν,
(of that) the gods are the judges,
οἳ σὺν ἡμῖν, ὡς τὸ εἰκός, ἔσονται.
who on our side will be, as is very likely.

[3.1.22] οὗτοι μὲν γὰρ αὐτοὺς ἐπιωρκήκασιν·
For they did swear falsely to them (the gods),
ἡμεῖς δὲ πολλὰ ὁρῶντες ἀγαθὰ
and we, seeing many good things,
στερρῶς αὐτῶν ἀπειχόμεθα
scrupulously kept our hands off from them
διὰ τοὺς τῶν θεῶν ὅρκους·
because of the oaths for the gods.

ὥστε ἐξεῖναί μοι δοκεῖ ἰέναι ἐπὶ τὸν ἀγῶνα
So that we have a right, it seems to me, to enter upon the contest
πολὺ σὺν φρονήματι μείζονι ἢ τούτοις.
with a much greater self-confidence than they.

[3.1.23] ἔτι δ᾽ ἔχομεν σώματα ἱκανώτερα τούτων
and further, we have bodies more capable than theirs
καὶ ψύχη καὶ θάλπη καὶ πόνους φέρειν·
of bearing cold and heat and hardship;
ἔχομεν δὲ καὶ ψυχὰς σὺν τοῖς θεοῖς ἀμείνονας·
we have better souls too, by the help of the gods;
οἱ δὲ ἄνδρες καὶ τρωτοὶ καὶ θνητοὶ μᾶλλον ἡμῶν,
the men (are) also vulnerable and mortal more then we,
ἢν οἱ θεοὶ ὥσπερ τὸ πρόσθεν νίκην ἡμῖν διδῶσιν.
if the gods, as before, give us victory.

[3.1.24] ἀλλ᾽ ἴσως γὰρ καὶ ἄλλοι ταὐτὰ ἐνθυμοῦνται,
But perhaps take also the others that to heart,
πρὸς τῶν θεῶν μὴ ἀναμένωμεν
in heaven’s name, let us not wait
ἄλλους ἐφ᾽ ἡμᾶς ἐλθεῖν
for others to come to us
παρακαλοῦντας ἐπὶ τὰ κάλλιστα ἔργα,
challenging us to the most noble deeds,

ἀλλ᾽ ἡμεῖς ἄρξωμεν τοῦ ἐξορμῆσαι
but let us begin to stimulate
καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρετήν·
also the others to bravery.

φάνητε τῶν λοχαγῶν ἄριστοι
Show yourselves of the officers the bravest,
καὶ τῶν στρατηγῶν ἀξιοστρατηγότεροι.
and of the generals the worthiest to command.

(If you choose)
ορμᾶν ἐπὶ ταῦτα,
to start forwards with this,
ἕπεσθαι ὑμῖν βούλομαι,
I will follow you,
εἰ δ᾽ ὑμεῖς τάττετ᾽ ἐμὲ ἡγεῖσθαι,
but if you command me to lead the way
οὐδὲν προφασίζομαι τὴν ἡλικίαν,
I shall not use as pretence my age,

ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀκμάζειν ἡγοῦμαι
but I think to be old enough
ἐρύκειν ἀπ᾽ ἐμαυτοῦ τὰ κακά.»
to keep back from me the suffering.”

[3.1.26] ὁ μὲν ταῦτ᾽ ἔλεξεν,
He said that.
οἱ δὲ ἀρχηγοὶ ἀκούσαντες
and the officers, when they heard,
ἡγεῖσθαι ἐκέλευον πάντες,
called upon him to put himself at their head. all,
πλὴν Ἀπολλωνίδης τις
except a certain Apollonides,
ἦν βοιωτιάζων τῆι φωνῆι·
he was speaking in the Boeotian dialect.

[3.1.32] (…) τοῦτον μὲν οὖν ἀπήλασαν·
(…) Him then they banished.
οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι παρὰ τὰς τάξεις ἰόντες,
But the others, along the ranks going,
ὅπου μὲν στρατηγὸς σῶιος εἴη,
wherever a general was still alive,
τὸν στρατηγὸν παρεκάλουν,
they did call up the general,
ὁπόθεν δὲ οἴχοιτο,
but where he was gone,
τὸν ὑποστράτηγον,
the lieutenant-general;
ὅπου δ᾽ αὖ λοχαγὸς σῶιος εἴη,
and where the captain (alone) was left,
τὸν λοχαγόν.
the captain.

[3.1.26] ὁ μὲν ταῦτ᾽ ἔλεξεν,
He said that.
οἱ δὲ ἀρχηγοὶ ἀκούσαντες
and the officers, when they heard,
ἡγεῖσθαι ἐκέλευον πάντες,
called upon him to put himself at their head. all,
πλὴν Ἀπολλωνίδης τις
except a certain Apollonides,
ἦν βοιωτιάζων τῆι φωνῆι·
he was speaking in the Boeotian dialect.

[3.1.32] (…) τοῦτον μὲν οὖν ἀπήλασαν·
(…) Him then they banished.
οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι παρὰ τὰς τάξεις ἰόντες,
But the others, along the ranks going,
ὅπου μὲν στρατηγὸς σῶιος εἴη,
and wherever a general was still alive,
τὸν στρατηγὸν παρεκάλουν,
they did call up the general,
ὁπόθεν δὲ οἴχοιτο,
but where he was gone,
τὸν ὑποστράτηγον,
the lieutenant-general;
ὅπου δ᾽ αὖ λοχαγὸς σῶιος εἴη,
and where the captain (alone) was left,
τὸν λοχαγόν.
the captain.

[3.1.33] ἐπεὶ δὲ πάντες συνῆλθον,
As soon as they had all assembled,
εἰς τὸ πρόσθεν τῶν ὅπλων ἐκαθέζοντο·
they seated themselves in front of the bivouacs;
καὶ ἐγένοντο οἱ συνελθόντες στρατηγοὶ
and they were, the assembled generals
καὶ λοχαγοὶ ἀμφὶ τοὺς ἑκατόν.
and captains, about a hundred.
ὅτε δὲ ταῦτα ἦν
When this took place
σχεδὸν μέσαι ἦσαν νύκτες.
it was nearly midnight.

[3.1.34] ἐνταῦθα Ἱερώνυμος Ἠλεῖος
Thereupon Hieronymous the Eleian,
πρεσβύτατος ὢν τῶν Προξένου λοχαγῶν
being the eldest of Proxenus’s captains,
ἤρχετο λέγειν ὧδε.
began to speak as follows:

«ἡμῖν, ὦ ἄνδρες στρατηγοὶ καὶ λοχαγοί,
“For us, generals and captains,
ὁρῶσι τὰ παρόντα
in view of the present crisis,
ἔδοξε καὶ αὐτοῖς συνελθεῖν
it seemed right ourselves to assemble
καὶ ὑμᾶς παρακαλέσαι,
and to summon you,
ὅπως βουλευσαίμεθα
in order that we will consider
εἴ τι δυναίμεθα ἀγαθόν.
if we can do something good.

λέξον δ᾽, ἔφη, καὶ σύ, ὦ Ξενοφῶν,
Tell, he said, also you, Xenophon,
ἅπερ καὶ πρὸς ἡμᾶς.»
what you said to us.”

3.1.35] ἐκ τούτου λέγει τάδε Ξενοφῶν.
Thereupon Xenophon speaks as follows:
«ἀλλὰ ταῦτα μὲν δὴ πάντες ἐπιστάμεθα,
“Well then, this we all know
ὅτι βασιλεὺς καὶ Τισσαφέρνης
that the king and Tissaphernes
οὓς μὲν ἐδυνήθησαν
as many as they could,
συνειλήφασιν ἡμῶν,
have seized of us,
τοῖς δ᾽ ἄλλοις δῆλον
as to the others it is clear
ὅτι ἐπιβουλεύουσιν,
that they (the king and Tissaphernes) are plotting
ὡς, ἢν δύνωνται, ἀπολέσωσιν.
that, if they can, they destroy (them).

ἡμῖν δέ γε οἶμαι πάντα ποιητέα
By us, I think, all has to be done
ὡς μήποτε ἐπὶ τοῖς βαρβάροις γενώμεθα,
that we never gett into the power of the barbarians,
ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον ἐκεῖνοι ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν.
but rather they in our (power).

[3.1.36] εὖ τοίνυν ἐπίστασθε
Now know this well
ὅτι ὑμεῖς τοσοῦτοι ὄντες
that you, being so many,
ὅσοι νῦν συνεληλύθατε
all you who are by now assembled,
μέγιστον ἔχετε καιρόν.
have a very great opportunity;

οἱ γὰρ στρατιῶται οὗτοι
for the soldiers there
πάντες πρὸς ὑμᾶς βλέπουσι,
all have their eyes fixed upon you,
κἂν μὲν ὑμᾶς ὁρῶσιν ἀθύμους,
and if they see you downhearted,
πάντες κακοὶ ἔσονται,
all will be cowardly,

ἢν δὲ ὑμεῖς αὐτοί τε
but if yourselves
παρασκευαζόμενοι φανεροὶ ἦτε
show that you are making preparations
ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους
against the enemies,
καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους παρακαλῆτε,
and the others call to aid,
εὖ ἴστε ὅτι ἕψονται ὑμῖν
know well that they will follow you,
καὶ πειράσονται μιμεῖσθαι.
and they will try to imitate you.

[3.1.37] ἴσως δέ τοι καὶ δίκαιόν ἐστιν
Maybe it is also but fair
ὑμᾶς διαφέρειν τι τούτων.
that you should somewhat differ from them,
ὑμεῖς γάρ ἐστε στρατηγοί,
for you are generals,
ὑμεῖς ταξίαρχοι καὶ λοχαγοί·
you (are) division-commanders and captains;

καὶ ὅτε εἰρήνη ἦν,
and when it was peace,
ὑμεῖς καὶ χρήμασι καὶ τιμαῖς
you had in wealth and privileges
τούτων ἐπλεονεκτεῖτε·
the advantage over them;

καὶ νῦν τοίνυν ἐπεὶ πόλεμός ἐστιν,
and now, because it is war,
ἀξιοῦν δεῖ ὑμᾶς αὐτοὺς ἀμείνους τε τοῦ πλήθους εἶναι
it is necessary that yourselves want to be better than the crowd,
καὶ προβουλεύειν τούτων
and to deliberate for them
καὶ προπονεῖν,
and strain (for them),
ἤν που δέηι.
if somewhere it will be necessary.

[3.1.38] καὶ νῦν πρῶτον μὲν οἴομαι
And now in the first place I think
ἂν ὑμᾶς μέγα ὠφελῆσαι τὸ στράτευμα,
that you would do a great service to the army
εἰ ἐπιμεληθείητε ὅπως
if you will see that
ἀντὶ τῶν ἀπολωλότων
in stead of those that are lost
ὡς τάχιστα στρατηγοὶ καὶ
as soon as possible generals and
λοχαγοὶ ἀντικατασταθῶσιν.
captains will be placed.

ἄνευ γὰρ ἀρχόντων οὐδὲν ἂν οὔτε καλὸν
For without leaders neither beautiful
οὔτε ἀγαθὸν γένοιτο
nor good will happen,
ὡς μὲν συνελόντι εἰπεῖν, οὐδαμοῦ,
to say it shortly, nowhere,
ἐν δὲ δὴ τοῖς πολεμικοῖς παντάπασιν.
and in military matters certainly;

ἡ μὲν γὰρ εὐταξία σῴζειν δοκεῖ,
for discipline seems to save,
ἡ δὲ ἀταξία πολλοὺς ἤδη ἀπολώλεκεν.
but the indiscipline has ruined many allready.

[3.1.39] ἐπειδὰν δὲ καταστήσησθε
When you will have appointed
τοὺς ἄρχοντας ὅσους δεῖ,
all the commanders necessary,
ἢν καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους στρατιώτας συλλέγητε
and if you the other soldiers will call together
καὶ παραθαρρύνητε,
and will encourage,
οἶμαι ἂν ὑμᾶς πάνυ ἐν καιρῶι ποιῆσαι.
I think that you will act very usefull.

3.1.40] νῦν γὰρ ἴσως καὶ ὑμεῖς αἰσθάνεσθε
For now perhaps you also noticed yourselves
ὡς ἀθύμως μὲν ἦλθον ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα,
that downhearted they came to the camp,
ἀθύμως δὲ πρὸς τὰς φυλακάς·
downhearted on sentry duty;

ὥστε οὕτω γ᾽ ἐχόντων
so that, being so.
οὐκ οἶδα ὅ τι ἄν τις χρήσαιτο αὐτοῖς,
I do not know for what somebody can use them,
εἴτε νυκτὸς δέοι
whether by night, if need were,
εἴτε καὶ ἡμέρας.
wether even by day.

[3.1.41] ἢν δέ τις αὐτῶν τρέψηι τὰς γνώμας,
If somebody of them turns his thoughts,
ὡς μὴ τοῦτο μόνον ἐννοῶνται,
so that they not only that have in mind
τί πείσονται,
what they will suffer,
ἀλλὰ καὶ τί ποιήσουσι,
but also what they will do,
πολὺ εὐθυμότεροι ἔσονται.
they will be much more well-disposed.

[3.1.42] ἐπίστασθε γὰρ δὴ ὅτι οὔτε πλῆθός ἐστιν
For you know of course that it is not numbers
οὔτε ἰσχὺς ἡ ἐν τῶι πολέμωι τὰς νίκας ποιοῦσα,
nor strength that in the war gives the victories,
ἀλλ᾽ ὁπότεροι ἂν σὺν τοῖς θεοῖς
but that whichever side by the gods’ help
ταῖς ψυχαῖς ἐρρωμενέστεροι
in their hearts stronger
ἴωσιν ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους,
go to the enemies,
τούτους ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ οἱ ἀντίοι οὐ δέχονται.
to face them nearly always the others do not wait.

[3.1.43] ἐντεθύμημαι δ᾽ ἔγωγε, ὦ ἄνδρες, καὶ τοῦτο,
I have taken to heart, gentlemen, also this,
ὅτι ὁπόσοι μὲν μαστεύουσι ζῆν
that they, who seek to save their lives,
ἐκ παντὸς τρόπου ἐν τοῖς πολεμικοῖς,
in all ways in matters of war,
οὗτοι μὲν κακῶς τε καὶ αἰσχρῶς
that these are just they who shamefully and dishonourably,
ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ ἀποθνήισκουσιν,
as a rule, die,

ὁπόσοι δὲ τὸν μὲν θάνατον ἐγνώκασι
whereas they who recognise that death
πᾶσι κοινὸν εἶναι καὶ ἀναγκαῖον ἀνθρώποις,
is the common lot and destiny of all men,
περὶ δὲ τοῦ καλῶς ἀποθνήισκειν ἀγωνίζονται,
and trive hard to die nobly,
τούτους ὁρῶ μᾶλλόν πως εἰς τὸ γῆρας ἀφικνουμένους
these I see more frequently do attain to old age,
καὶ ἕως ἂν ζῶσιν εὐδαιμονέστερον διάγοντας.
and, so long as they live, they live more happily.

[3.1.44] καὶ ὑμᾶς δεῖ νῦν καταμαθόντας
It is necessary that you too have understood this now,
(ἐν τοιούτωι γὰρ καιρῶι ἐσμεν)
(for in such a critical moment we are)
αὐτούς τε ἄνδρας ἀγαθοὺς εἶναι
to be ourselves brave men,
καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους παρακαλεῖν.»
and that we encourage the others.”

[3.1.45] ὁ μὲν ταῦτα εἰπὼν ἐπαύσατο.
And he, having said this, ceased.
μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον εἶπε Χειρίσοφος·
And after him, Cheirisophus said:
«ἀλλὰ πρόσθεν μέν, ὦ Ξενοφῶν,
“Hitherto of you, Xenophon,
τοσοῦτον μόνον σε ἐγίγνωσκον
only so much I knew
ὅσον ἤκουον Ἀθηναῖον εἶναι,
as that you were, I heard, an Athenian,
νῦν δὲ καὶ ἐπαινῶ σε ἐφ᾽ οἷς λέγεις
but now I praise you for what you say
τε καὶ πράττεις καὶ βουλοίμην ἂν
and for what you do, and I could only wish
ὅτι πλείστους εἶναι τοιούτους·
that there are as many as possible like you,
κοινὸν γὰρ ἂν εἴη τὸ ἀγαθόν.
for it would be a public blessing.

[3.1.46] καὶ νῦν, ἔφη, μὴ μέλλωμεν, ὦ ἄνδρες,
And now,” he said, “let us waste no time, gentlemen;
ἀλλ᾽ ἀπελθόντες ἤδη αἱρεῖσθε οἱ δεόμενοι ἄρχοντας,
and having retired now choose the missing leaders,
καὶ ἑλόμενοι ἥκετε εἰς τὸ μέσον τοῦ στρατοπέδου
and having chosen (them) come to the middle of the camp,
καὶ τοὺς αἱρεθέντας ἄγετε·
and bring the chosen (men).
ἔπειτ᾽ ἐκεῖ συγκαλοῦμεν τοὺς ἄλλους στρατιώτας.
After that we will call together the other soldiers there;
παρέστω δ᾽ ἡμῖν, ἔφη, καὶ Τολμίδης ὁ κῆρυξ.»
let be present with us, he said, also Tolmides, the herald.”

[3.1.46] καὶ νῦν, ἔφη, μὴ μέλλωμεν, ὦ ἄνδρες,
“And now,” he said, “let us waste no time, gentlemen;
ἀλλ᾽ ἀπελθόντες ἤδη αἱρεῖσθε οἱ δεόμενοι ἄρχοντας,
and having retired now choose the missing leaders,
καὶ ἑλόμενοι ἥκετε εἰς τὸ μέσον τοῦ στρατοπέδου
and having chosen (them) come to the middle of the camp,
καὶ τοὺς αἱρεθέντας ἄγετε·
and bring the chosen (men).
ἔπειτ᾽ ἐκεῖ συγκαλοῦμεν τοὺς ἄλλους στρατιώτας.
After that we will call together the other soldiers there;
παρέστω δ᾽ ἡμῖν, ἔφη, καὶ Τολμίδης ὁ κῆρυξ.»
let be present with us, he said, also Tolmides, the herald,”

[3.1.47] καὶ ἅμα ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὼν ἀνέστη,
And saying that he got up,
ὡς μὴ μέλλοιτο
so that there would be no delay,
ἀλλὰ περαίνοιτο τὰ δέοντα.
but might be done what was needful;

ἐκ τούτου ἡιρέθησαν ἄρχοντες
after this leaders were chosen:
ἀντὶ μὲν Κλεάρχου Τιμασίων Δαρδανεύς,
in place of Clearchus, Timasion the Dardanian,
ἀντὶ δὲ Σωκράτους Ξανθικλῆς Ἀχαιός,
in place of Socrates, Xanthicles, an Achaean,
ἀντὶ δὲ Ἀγίου Κλεάνωρ Ἀρκάς,
in place of Agias, Cleanor, an Arcadian,
ἀντὶ δὲ Μένωνος Φιλήσιος Ἀχαιός,
in place of Menon, Philesius, an Achaean,
ἀντὶ δὲ Προξένου Ξενοφῶν Ἀθηναῖος.
in place of Proxenus, Xenophon the Athenian.

Return

reageer