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Solon and Croesus · 1740 dagen geleden by Ad van den Ende

Boek 1, 30-34

αὐτῶν δὴ ὦν τούτων
So for the sake of that
καὶ τῆς θεωρίης
and of scientific interest
ἐκδημήσας ὁ Σόλων εἵνεκεν
going abroad Solon
ἐς Αἴγυπτον ἀπίκετο
arrived in Egypt
παρὰ Ἄμασιν
to Amasis,
καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐς Σάρδις
and then in Sardes
παρὰ Κροῖσον.
to Croesus.

ἀπικόμενος δὲ
Having arrived
ἐξεινίζετο
he was entertained well
ἐν τοῖσι βασιληίοισι
in the palace
ὑπὸ τοῦ Κροίσου:
by Croesus.

μετὰ δὲ ἡμέρῃ τρίτῃ ἢ τετάρτῃ
After the third or fourth day,
κελεύσαντος Κροίσου
at the command of Croesus
τὸν Σόλωνα θεράποντες περιῆγον
the attendents showed Solon around
κατὰ τοὺς θησαυρούς,
the treasures,
καὶ ἐπεδείκνυσαν πάντα
and they showed all things
ἐόντα μεγάλα τε καὶ ὄλβια.
being great and rich.

θεησάμενον δέ μιν τὰ πάντα
When he (Solon) had seen everything
καὶ σκεψάμενον
and had examined it,
ὥς οἱ κατὰ καιρὸν ἦν
when he found the oppornity
εἴρετο ὁ Κροῖσος τάδε.
Croeses said this.

‘ξεῖνε Ἀθηναῖε,
‘My Athenian guest,
παρ᾽ ἡμέας γὰρ περὶ σέο
to us came about you
λόγος ἀπῖκται πολλὸς
much information
καὶ σοφίης εἵνεκεν τῆς σῆς
and because of your wisdom
καὶ πλάνης,
and because of your wandering,
ὡς φιλοσοφέων
that you, loving wisdom,
γῆν πολλὴν
much land,
θεωρίης εἵνεκεν
because of your interest,
ἐπελήλυθας:
did visit:

νῦν ὦν
so now
ἵμερος ἐπειρέσθαι μoi ἐπῆλθέ σε
the desire occurredto me to ask you
εἴ τινα ἤδη πάντων εἶδες
if you already did see of all people someone
ὀλβιώτατον.’
(who is) the most happy.’

ὃ μὲν ἐλπίζων εἶναι
He, hoping to be
ἀνθρώπων ὀλβιώτατος
of all people the happiest
ταῦτα ἐπειρώτα:
asked this.

Σόλων δὲ οὐδὲν ὑποθωπεύσας
But Solon, without flattery,
ἀλλὰ τῷ ἐόντι χρησάμενος λέγει
holding on to the reality, says:
‘ὦ βασιλεῦ,
‘O sire,
Τέλλον Ἀθηναῖον.’
Tellus of Athens.’

ἀποθωμάσας δὲ Κροῖσος τὸ λεχθὲν
Croesus, surprised at what had been said,
εἴρετο ἐπιστρεφέως:
asked anxiousley:
‘κοίῃ δὴ κρίνεις
‘Why do you think
Τέλλον εἶναι ὀλβιώτατον;’
Tellus to be the happiest?’

ὁ δὲ εἶπε
He said:
‘Τέλλῳ τοῦτο μὲν τῆς πόλιος
First because Tellus, living in a city
εὖ ἡκούσης
that was flourishing,
παῖδες ἦσαν καλοί τε κἀγαθοί,
had bautiful and good boys,
καί σφι εἶδε ἅπασι
and to each of them he saw
τέκνα ἐκγενόμενα
born children,
καὶ πάντα παραμείναντα:
and that all of them kept alive;

τοῦτο δὲ τοῦ βίου εὖ ἥκοντι,
and further, while his life was good,
ὡς τὰ παρ᾽ ἡμῖν,
as our people looks upon,
τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου
the end of his life
λαμπροτάτη ἐπεγένετο:
was very glorious.

γενομένης γὰρ Ἀθηναίοισι μάχης
When there was a battle of the Athenians
πρὸς τοὺς ἀστυγείτονας ἐν Ἐλευσῖνι,
against their neighbours in Eleusis
βοηθήσας
coming to the assistance
καὶ τροπὴν ποιήσας τῶν πολεμίων
and after putting their ennemies to flight
ἀπέθανε κάλλιστα,
he died most gallantly,
καί μιν Ἀθηναῖοι δημοσίῃ τε ἔθαψαν αὐτοῦ
and him the Athenians buried with public honours
τῇ περ ἔπεσε
there where he fell;
καὶ ἐτίμησαν μεγάλως.’
and they honored him on a large scale.’

31. ὣς δὲ τὰ κατὰ τὸν Τέλλον
When regarding Tellus
προετρέψατο ὁ Σόλων τὸν Κροῖσον
Solon had irritated Croesus,
εἴπας πολλά τε καὶ ὀλβία,
citing many and happy things,
ἐπειρώτα τίνα δεύτερον
he (Croesus) asked who the second
μετ᾽ ἐκεῖνον ἴδοι,
seemed after him (Tellus) ,
δοκέων πάγχυ
expecting at any rate
δευτερεῖα γῶν οἴσεσθαι
at least the second reward to obtain.

ὃ δ᾽ εἶπε “Κλέοβίν τε καὶ Βίτωνα.
But he said: “Cleobis and Bito.
τούτοισι γὰρ ἐοῦσι γένος Ἀργείοισι
For them, who were of descent Argives,
βίος τε ἀρκέων ὑπῆν,
enough livelihood was available.
καὶ πρὸς τούτῳ ῥώμη σώματος τοιήδε·
and besides such a body strength
ἀεθλοφόροι τε ἀμφότεροι ὁμοίως ἦσαν,
that both equally were prizewinners
καὶ δὴ καὶ λέγεται ὅδε ὁ λόγος.
and this story is told:

ἐούσης ὁρτῆς
when there was a feast
τῇ Ἥρῃ τοῖσι Ἀργείοισι
in honour of Hera for the people ofArgos
ἔδεε πάντως τὴν μητέρα αὐτῶν
it absolutely was necesssary their mother
ζεύγεϊ κομισθῆναι ἐς τὸ ἱρόν,
by a team (oxes) was brought to the sanctuary,

οἱ δέ σφι βόες ἐκ τοῦ ἀγροῦ
but the oxes from the field
οὐ παρεγίνοντο ἐν ὥρῃ·
did not come in time;
ἐκκληιόμενοι δὲ τῇ ὥρῃ
being oppressed by the time
οἱ νεηνίαι ὑποδύντες αὐτοὶ ὑπὸ τὴν ζεύγλην
the youths, themselves diving under the yoke,
εἷλκον τὴν ἅμαξαν,
drew the car,
ἐπὶ τῆς ἁμάξης δέ σφι ὠχέετο ἡ μήτηρ·
on the car was transported the mother;
σταδίους δὲ πέντε καὶ τεσσεράκοντα διακομίσαντες
having transported her for five and forty stadiums
ἀπίκοντο ἐς τὸ ἱρόν.
they arrived at the temple.

[3] ταῦτα δέ σφι ποιήσασι
When they had done this
καὶ ὀφθεῖσι ὑπὸ τῆς πανηγύριος
and had been seen by all worshippers
τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου ἀρίστη ἐπεγένετο,
the best end of their life followed,
διέδεξέ τε ἐν τούτοισι ὁ θεὸς
the God revealed in them
ὡς ἄμεινον εἴη ἀνθρώπῳ
that it was better for a man
τεθνάναι μᾶλλον ἢ ζώειν.
to die then to live.

Ἀργεῖοι μὲν γὰρ περιστάντες
The men of Argos, staying around them,
ἐμακάριζον τῶν νεηνιέων τὴν ῥώμην,
praised the strength of the young men,
αἱ δὲ Ἀργεῖαι τὴν μητέρα αὐτῶν,
and the wives of Argos (praised) their mother,
οἵων τέκνων ἐκύρησε·
because she had received such children;

[4] ἡ δὲ μήτηρ περιχαρής ἐοῦσα
The mother, beiing very pleased
τῷ τε ἔργῳ καὶ τῇ φήμῃ,
at the deed and the fame,
στᾶσα ἀντίον τοῦ ἀγάλματος
standing straight before the image
εὔχετο Κλεόβι τε καὶ Βίτωνι
prayed for Cleobis and Bito,
τοῖσι ἑωυτῆς τέκνοισι,
her children
οἵ μιν ἐτίμησαν μεγάλως,
who had honoured her mightely,
τὴν θεὸν δοῦναι
that the goddess would give
τὸ ἀνθρώπῳ τυχεῖν
that what for the man to get
ἄριστον ἐστί.
is the best.

μετὰ ταύτην δὲ τὴν εὐχὴν
After this prayer,
ὡς ἔθυσάν τε,
when they had offered
καὶ εὐωχήθησαν
and had made an hearty meal,
κατακοιμηθέντες ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ ἱρῷ
after falling asleep in the same temple
οἱ νεηνίαι οὐκέτι ἀνέστησαν
the young men never woke again
ἀλλ᾽ ἐν τέλεϊ τούτῳ ἔσχοντο.
but they remained in that end.

Ἀργεῖοι δὲ σφέων εἰκόνας ποιησάμενοι
The Argives, after making statues of them
ἀνέθεσαν ἐς Δελφοὺς
consecrated these at Delphi
ὡς ἀριστῶν γενομένων.”
for they were the best of men.”

XXXII. [1] Σόλων μὲν δὴ εὐδαιμονίης δευτερεῖα
Thus Solon second place in happiness
ἔνεμε τούτοισι,
granted to these men.

Κροῖσος δὲ σπερχθεὶς εἶπε «ὦ ξεῖνε Ἀθηναῖε,
And Crœsus, being angry, said: “My Athenian guest,
ἡ δ᾽ ἡμετέρη εὐδαιμονίη
our happiness
οὕτω τοι ἀπέρριπται ἐς τὸ μηδὲν
has been so cast aside by you as nothing,
ὥστε οὐδὲ ἰδιωτέων ἀνδρῶν
that you do not even as common men
ἀξίους ἡμέας ἐποίησας;»
made us worth?”

ὁ δὲ εἶπε «ὦ Κροῖσε,
But he said: “O Croesus,
ἐπιστάμενόν με τὸ θεῖον
while I know that the divine
πᾶν ἐὸν φθονερόν τε καὶ ταραχῶδες
is entirely envious and destructive,
ἐπειρωτᾷς ἀνθρωπηίων πρηγμάτων πέρι.
you ask me about human affairs!

2] ἐν γὰρ τῷ μακρῷ χρόνῳ
For in the long time
πολλὰ μὲν ἐστὶ ἰδεῖν
many (things) are to see
τὰ μή τις ἐθέλει,
that one do not want to,
πολλὰ δὲ καὶ παθεῖν.
many also to suffer.

ἐς γὰρ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτεα
For at seventy years
οὖρον τῆς ζόης ἀνθρώπῳ προτίθημι.
I set the limit of a man’s life;

[3] οὗτοι ἐόντες ἐνιαυτοὶ ἑβδομήκοντα
These seventy years
παρέχονται ἡμέρας διηκοσίας
represent two hundred days
καὶ πεντακισχιλίας καὶ δισμυρίας,
and five thousand and twenty thousand,
ἐμβολίμου μηνὸς μὴ γινομένου·
leaving out the intercalary month.

εἰ δὲ δὴ ἐθελήσει
But if you want
τοὔτερον τῶν ἐτέων μηνὶ μακρότερον γίνεσθαι,
that every other year is longer by a month,
ἵνα δὴ αἱ ὧραι συμβαίνωσι παραγινόμεναι ἐς τὸ δέον,
so that the seasons agree opportunely,
μῆνες μὲν παρὰ τὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτεα
then months during the seventy years,
οἱ ἐμβόλιμοι γίνονται τριήκοντα πέντε,
the inserted, are thirty-five,
ἡμέραι δὲ ἐκ τῶν μηνῶν τούτων
and days from these months
χίλιαι πεντήκοντα.
(are) thousand fifty.

[4] τουτέων τῶν ἁπασέων ἡμερέων
Out of all these days
τῶν ἐς τὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτεα,
in the seventy years,
ἐουσέων πεντήκοντα καὶ διηκοσιέων
being fifty and two hundred
καὶ ἑξακισχιλιέων καὶ δισμυριέων,
and six thousand and twenty thousand,
ἡ ἑτέρη αὐτέων τῇ ἑτέρῃ ἡμέρῃ
one day of these and another day
τὸ παράπαν οὐδὲν ὅμοιον προσάγει πρῆγμα.
altogether in nothing brings the same.

οὕτω ὦν Κροῖσε
So, consequently, Croesus,
πᾶν ἐστὶ ἄνθρωπος συμφορή.
man is entirely chance.

[5] ἐμοὶ δὲ σὺ καὶ πλουτέειν μέγα φαίνεαι
To me you seem to be very rich
καὶ βασιλεὺς πολλῶν εἶναι ἀνθρώπων·
and to be king of many people,
ἐκεῖνο δὲ τὸ εἴρεό με,
but that which you ask me
οὔκω σε ἐγὼ λέγω,
I do not yet answer you
πρὶν τελευτήσαντα καλῶς τὸν αἰῶνα πύθωμαι.
before I learn that you ended your life well.

οὐ γάρ τι ὁ μέγα πλούσιος
For the very rich man not
μᾶλλον τοῦ ἐπ᾽ ἡμέρην ἔχοντος ὀλβιώτερος ἐστί,
is happier than the man who lives for the day,
εἰ μή οἱ τύχη ἐπίσποιτο πάντα καλὰ ἔχοντα
if not he has the chance with all being beautiful
εὖ τελευτῆσαὶ τὸν βίον.
to end his life well.

πολλοὶ μὲν γὰρ ζάπλουτοι ἀνθρώπων ἀνόλβιοι εἰσί,
For many very rich men are unhappy,
πολλοὶ δὲ μετρίως ἔχοντες βίου εὐτυχέες.
and many having a modest life are happy.

[6] ὁ μὲν δὴ μέγα πλούσιος ἀνόλβιος δὲ
The very rich but unhappy (man)
δυοῖσι προέχει τοῦ εὐτυχέος μοῦνον,
is in only two ways superior to the only happy man;
οὗτος δὲ τοῦ πλουσίου
while this (man surpasses) the rich
καὶ ἀνόλβου πολλοῖσι·
but unfortunate in many.

ὃ μὲν ἐπιθυμίην ἐκτελέσαι
He (the rich man) of fulfilling his appetite
καί ἄτην μεγάλην προσπεσοῦσαν ἐνεῖκαι
and of bearing a great disaster that falls upon him
δυνατώτερος,
is more capable;

ὁ δὲ τοῖσιδε
but in these ways he (the modest man)
προέχει ἐκείνου·
surpasses the other;
ἄτην μὲν καὶ ἐπιθυμίην
disaster and appetite
οὐκ ὁμοίως δυνατὸς ἐκείνῳ ἐνεῖκαι,
he (the happy man) is not so able as the other to support,
ταῦτα δὲ ἡ εὐτυχίη οἱ ἀπερύκει,
but hese things his luck keeps away from him,
ἄπηρος δὲ ἐστί, ἄνουσος,
and he is free from deformity, from disease,
ἀπαθὴς κακῶν, εὔπαις,
has no experience of evils, has fine children,
εὐειδής.
is well-shaped.

[7] εἰ δὲ πρὸς τούτοισι ἔτι τελευτήσῃ τὸν βίον εὖ,
If besides all this he ends his life well,
οὗτος ἐκεῖνος τὸν σὺ ζητέεις,
he is the one whom you seek,
ὁ ὄλβιος κεκλῆσθαι ἄξιος ἐστί·
he is worthy to be called happy;

πρὶν δ᾽ ἂν τελευτήσῃ, ἐπισχεῖν,
but before he dies, wait,
μηδὲ καλέειν κω ὄλβιον ἀλλ᾽ εὐτυχέα.
and not yet call him happy but fortunate.

[8] τὰ πάντα μέν νυν ταῦτα συλλαβεῖν
All these things now to obtain,
ἄνθρωπον ἐόντα ἀδύνατον ἐστί,
a man being, is impossible,
ὥσπερ χωρῇ οὐδεμία καταρκέει
just as nothing for a land is quite sufficient,
πάντα ἑωυτῇ παρέχουσα,
all for her producing.

ἀλλὰ ἄλλο μὲν ἔχει ἑτέρου δὲ ἐπιδέεται·
One has one thing but lacks another;
ἣ δὲ ἂν τὰ πλεῖστα ἔχῃ,
whichever has the most
αὕτη ἀρίστη.
that is the best.

ὣς δὲ καὶ ἀνθρώπου σῶμα
Just so also a body of a man
ἓν οὐδὲν αὔταρκες ἐστί·
in nothing is self-sufficient;
τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἔχει,
one thing it has
ἄλλου δὲ ἐνδεές ἐστι·
but another it lacks.

[9] ὃς δ᾽ ἂν αὐτῶν πλεῖστα ἔχων διατελέῃ
Whoever from them having the most passes through life
καὶ ἔπειτα τελευτήσῃ εὐχαρίστως τὸν βίον,
and then finishes his life agreeably,
οὗτος παρ᾽ ἐμοὶ τὸ οὔνομα τοῦτο
this one, in my opinion, this name,
ὦ βασιλεῦ δίκαιος ἐστὶ φέρεσθαι.
O King, to bear is justified.

σκοπέειν δὲ χρὴ παντὸς χρήματος
It is necessary to see of every affair
τὴν τελευτήν, κῇ ἀποβήσεται·
the end, how it turns out;
πολλοῖσι γὰρ δὴ ὑποδέξας ὄλβον
for many people having promised happiness,
ὁ θεὸς προρρίζους ἀνέτρεψε.»
the god, then utterly ruins them.”

XXXIII. [1] ταῦτα λέγων
By saying this
τῷ Κροίσῳοὔ κως οὔτε ἐχαρίζετο,
he did not at all please Croesus,
οὔτε λόγου μιν ποιησάμενος οὐδενὸς
who, not at all taking him into account,
ἀποπέμπεται, κάρτα δόξας ἀμαθέα εἶναι,
sent him away, thinking him to be a great fool,
ὃς τὰ παρεόντα ἀγαθὰ μετεὶς
wo the present goods ignores
τὴν τελευτὴν παντὸς χρήματος ὁρᾶν ἐκέλευε.
and exhorted to look to the end of every affair.

XXXIV. [1] μετὰ δὲ Σόλωνα οἰχόμενον
But after Solon departed
ἔλαβέ ἐκ θεοῦ νέμεσις μεγάλη Κροῖσον,
a great punishment from god did overtake Croesus;
ὡς εἰκάσαι,
as I guess
ὅτι ἐνόμισε ἑωυτὸν εἶναι
because he supposed himself to be
ἀνθρώπων ἁπάντων ὀλβιώτατον.
of all people the happiest.

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