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Book I Κλειὼ · 2322 dagen geleden by Ad van den Ende

Introduction

Ἡροδότου Ἁλικαρνησσέος
Of Herodotus of Halicarnassus
ἱστορίης ἀπόδεξις ἥδε,
is this of his researches the publication,
ὡς μήτε
in order that not
τὰ γενόμενα ἐξ ἀνθρώπων
what has been done by people
τῷ χρόνῳ ἐξίτηλα γένηται,
in due time will be forgotten,
μήτε ἔργα μεγάλα
and not the great
τε καὶ θωμαστά,
and admirable deads,
τὰ μὲν Ἕλλησι,
by the Greeks
τὰ δὲ βαρβάροισι ἀποδεχθέντα,
and by the others performed,
ἀκλεᾶ γένηται,
will be obscure;
τὰ τε ἄλλα
and together with other things
καὶ δι’ ἣν αἰτίην
also through what cause
ἐπολέμησαν ἀλλήλοισι.
they faught against each other.

Kandaules and Gyges (Two men and a wife)

I 8-13
οὗτος δὴ ὦν ὁ Κανδαύλης
Now this Candaules
ἠράσθη τῆς ἑωυτοῦ γυναικός,
was in love with his own wife;
ἐρασθεὶς δὲ ἐνόμιζέ
lovesick he thought
οἱ εἶναι γυναῖκα
to have a wife,
πολλὸν πασέων καλλίστην.
by far of all wives the fairest.

ὥστε δὲ ταῦτα νομίζων,
As he was persuaded of that ….
ἦν γάρ οἱ
For he had
τῶν αἰχμοφόρων
among his bodyguards a man,
Γύγης ὁ Δασκύλου
Gyges, the son of Dascylus.,
ἀρεσκόμενος μάλιστα,
whom he favoured mostly.

τούτῳ τῷ Γύγῃ
To this Gyges
καὶ τὰ σπουδαιέστερα
even the most serious
τῶν πρηγμάτων
of the public affairs
ὑπερετίθετο ὁ Κανδαύλης
entrusted Candaules,
καὶ δὴ καὶ τὸ εἶδος
and of course also the beauty
τῆς γυναικὸς ὑπερεπαινέων.
of his wife he praised exceedingly.

χρόνου δὲ οὐ πολλοῦ
Not much time
διελθόντος
having passed away
(χρῆν γὰρ
(for it was predestined
Κανδαύλῃ
for Candaules
γενέσθαι κακῶς)
to end ill),
ἔλεγε πρὸς τὸν Γύγην τοιάδε.
he said to Gyges this:

“Γύγη, οὐ γὰρ σε δοκέω
`Gyges, for I don´t think that you
πείθεσθαι μοι λέγοντι
believe me if I speak
περὶ τοῦ εἴδεος τῆς γυναικός
about the beauty of my wife
(ὦτα γὰρ τυγχάνει ἀνθρώποισι
(since the ears of men, by chance,
ἐόντα ἀπιστότερα ὀφθαλμῶν),
are less credulous than their eyes),
ποίεε ὅκως ἐκείνην
do so in order that you her
θεήσεαι γυμνήν.”
will see naked.´

ὃ δ᾽ ἀμβώσας εἶπε
Hij echter zei heftig:
“δέσποτα, τίνα λέγεις λόγον
‘Lord, what speech do you utter,
οὐκ ὑγιέα,
not wise,
κελεύων με δέσποιναν τὴν ἐμὴν
ordering that I my mistress
θεήσασθαι γυμνήν;
will see naked?
ἅμα δὲ κιθῶνι ἐκδυομένῳ
Jointly with putting off her tunic
συνεκδύεται καὶ τὴν αἰδῶ γυνή.
a wife will put off her shame.

πάλαι δὲ τὰ καλὰ
Of old the right things
ἀνθρώποισι ἐξεύρηται,
have been found by men,
ἐκ τῶν μανθάνειν δεῖ·
out of which we have to learn.

ἐν τοῖσι ἓν τόδε ἐστί,
Among them one is this:
σκοπέειν τινὰ τὰ ἑωυτοῦ.
‘Let each look on his own.’
ἐγὼ δὲ πείθομαι
I believe you
ἐκείνην εἶναι
that she is
πασέων γυναικῶν καλλίστην,
of all wives the most beautiful.
καὶ σέο δέομαι
and I beg you
μὴ δέεσθαι
not to ask
ἀνόμων.”
something indecent.`

Ὃ μὲν δὴ λέγων τοιαῦτα
He, saying such things,
ἀπεμάχετο,
protested,
ἀρρωδέων μὴ τί οἱ
fearing that for him
ἐξ αὐτῶν γένηται
from this would proceed
κακόν.
some dreadful evil.

ὃ δ᾽ ἀμείβετο τοῖσιδε.
But he answered as follows.
“θάρσεε, Γύγη,
`Be courageous, Gyges,
καὶ μὴ φοβεῦ μήτε ἐμέ,
and don´t be afraid neither of me,
ὡς σέο πειρώμενος
as if leading you into temptation
λέγω λόγον τόνδε,
I say this word,
μήτε γυναῖκα τὴν ἐμήν,
nor of my wife
μὴ τὶ τοι ἐξ αὐτῆς
that from her
γένηται βλάβος.
will come any harm.

ἀρχήν γὰρ ἐγὼ μηχανήσομαι οὕτω
I will arrange it properly so
ὥστε μηδέ μαθεῖν μιν
that she shall not notice
ὀφθεῖσαν ὑπὸ σεῦ.
that she has been seen by you.

ἐγὼ γάρ σε ἐς τὸ οἴκημα
For into the chamber
ἐν τῷ κοιμώμεθα
where we sleep
ὄπισθε τῆς ἀνοιγομένης θύρης στήσω.
behind the open door I will bring you.

μετὰ δ᾽ ἐμὲ ἐσελθόντα
and after I have entered,
παρέσται καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἡ ἐμὴ ἐς κοῖτον.
my wife too will come to bed.

κεῖται δὲ ἀγχοῦ τῆς ἐσόδου θρόνος·
There stands near the entrance a chair;
ἐπὶ τοῦτον τῶν ἱματίων
on this of her clothes
κατὰ ἕν ἕκαστον ἐκδύνουσα
one by one taking off each article
θήσει,
she will lay it;
καὶ κατ᾽ ἡσυχίην πολλὴν παρέξει
and at your great leisure you will be able
τοι θεήσασθαι.
to look upon her.

ἐπεὰν δέ ἀπὸ τοῦ θρόνου στείχῃ
Then, when she moves from the chair
ἐπὶ τὴν εὐνήν
to the bed,
κατὰ νώτου τε αὐτῆς γένῃ,
you will come behind her;
σοὶ μελέτω τὸ ἐνθεῦτεν
be careful going from there
ὅκως μὴ σε ὄψεται
in order that she don’t see you
ἰόντα διὰ θυρέων.”
going out through the door.”

Ὃ μὲν δὴ ὡς οὐκ ἐδύνατο διαφυγεῖν,
As he could not escape,
ἦν ἕτοιμος·
he was willing.
ὁ δὲ Κανδαύλης,
Candaules,
ἐπεὶ ἐδόκεε ὥρη τῆς κοίτης εἶναι,
when he judged it to be time for bed,
ἤγαγε τὸν Γύγεα ἐς τὸ οἴκημα.
he brought Gyges into the chamber;

καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα αὐτίκα παρῆν καὶ ἡ γυνή.
and after that his wife too appeared presently,
ἐσελθοῦσαν δὲ
and while she came in
καὶ τιθεῖσαν τὰ εἵματα
and was laying down her clothes,
ἐθηεῖτο ὁ Γύγης.
Gyges saw her.

ὡς δὲ κατὰ νώτου ἐγένετο
When he came behind her,
ἰούσης τῆς γυναικός ἐς τὴν κοίτην,
while the wife went to bed,
ὑπεκδὺς ἐχώρεε ἔξω,
he furtive slipped outside,.
καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἐπορᾷ μιν
and the woman saw him
ἐξιόντα.
when he went out.

μαθοῦσὰ δὲ τὸ ποιηθέν
Perceiving what had been done
ἐκ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς
by her husband,
οὔτε ἀνέβωσε
she did not cry,
αἰσχυνθεῖσα
though shamed,
οὔτε ἔδοξε
nor did she show
μαθεῖν,
that she had perceived anything,
ἐν νοῶ ἔχουσα
intending
τίσεσθαι τὸν Κανδαύλεα.
to punish Candaules.

παρὰ γὰρ τοῖσι Λυδοῖσι,
For among the Lydians
σχεδὸν δὲ καὶ παρὰ τοῖσι ἄλλοισι βαρβάροισι
and most of the other foreign peoples,
καὶ ἄνδρα ὀφθῆναι γυμνόν
that even a man is seen naked.
ἐς αἰσχύνην μεγάλην φέρει.
contributes greatly to shame.

τότε μὲν δὴ οὕτω οὐδέν δηλώσασα
So then making no sign
ἡσυχίην εἶχε.
she kept quiet.
ὡς δὲ ἡμέρη τάχιστα ἐγεγόνεε,
But as soon as it was day,
τῶν οἰκετέων
after those of her servants
τοὺς μάλιστα ὥρα
whom she saw were most
πιστοὺς ἐόντας ἑωυτῇ,
faithful to her,
ἑτοίμους ποιησαμένη
having made willing
ἐκάλεε τὸν Γύγεα.
she called Gyges.

ὁ δὲ οὐδὲν δοκέων
He, not suspecting
αὐτήν τῶν πρηχθέντων ἐπίστασθαι
that she knew about what had been done,
ἦλθε καλεόμενος·
came when he was summoned,
ἐώθεε γὰρ καὶ πρόσθε,
for he was used
ὅκως ἡ βασίλεια καλέοι,
whenever the queen did call him
φοιτᾶν.
to come quickly.

ὡς δὲ ὁ Γύγης ἀπίκετο,
When Gyges had arrived,
ἔλεγε ἡ γυνὴ τάδε.
the lady said this.
“νῦν τοί δυῶν ὁδῶν παρεουσέων Γύγη
“Now there are two ways before you, Gyges,
δίδωμί αἵρεσιν,
I give you the choice
ὁκοτέρην βούλεαι τραπέσθαι.
wich way you will follow.

ἢ γὰρ Κανδαύλεα ἀποκτείνας
For either you will kill Candaules
ἐμέ τε καὶ τὴν βασιληίην ἔχε
and will have me and the kingship
τὴν Λυδῶν,
of the Lydians,
ἢ αὐτόν σε αὐτίκα οὕτω
or immediately you yourself
ἀποθνήσκειν δεῖ,
wll have to dy.
ὡς ἂν μὴ πάντα πειθόμενος
In order that, not obeying all commands
Κανδαύλῃ τοῦ λοιποῦ ἴδῃς
of Candaules, in the future you will see
τὰ μὴ σε δεῖ.
what you should not see.

ἀλλ᾽ ἤτοι κεῖνόν γε
Either he,
τὸν ταῦτα βουλεύσαντα,
who invented this,
δεῖ ἀπόλλυσθαι
must dy,
ἢ σε τὸν ἐμὲ γυμνήν θεησάμενον
or you, who saw me naked
καὶ ποιήσαντα οὐ νομιζόμενα.”
and did what is not decent.”

ὁ δὲ Γύγης τέως μὲν ἀπεθώμαζε
Gyges at first stood astonished
τὰ λεγόμενα,
at her words;
μετὰ δὲ ἱκέτευε
next he begged her
μὴ μιν ἀναγκαίῃ ἐνδέειν
not to compel him
διακρῖναι τοιαύτην αἵρεσιν.
to make such a choice.

οὔκων δὴ ἔπειθε,
But he did not persuade her
ἀλλ᾽ ὥρα
and saw
ἀναγκαίην ἀληθέως προκειμένην
that the necessity was truly upon him
ἢ τὸν δεσπότεα ἀπολλύναι
either to kill his master
ἢ αὐτὸν ὑπ᾽ ἄλλων ἀπόλλυσθαι·
or self be killed by others;
αἱρέεται αὐτὸς περιεῖναι.
he chose to survive himself.

ἐπειρώτα δὴ λέγων τάδε.
Then he asked, saying:
“ἐπεί με ἀναγκάζεις
“Since you force me
δεσπότεα τὸν ἐμὸν κτείνειν
to kill my master,
οὐκ ἐθέλοντα,
against my will,
φέρε ἀκούσω
I would like to hear
τέῳ καὶ τρόπῳ
in which way
ἐπιχειρήσομεν αὐτῷ.”
we wll lay our hands on him.”

ἣ δὲ ὑπολαβοῦσα ἔφη
She, replying, said:
“ἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ μὲν χωρίου
“From the same place
ἡ ὁρμή ἔσται
the attack will be
ὅθεν περ καὶ ἐκεῖνος
from where he too
ἐμέ ἐπεδέξατο γυμνήν,
made you view me naked:
ὑπνωμένῳ δὲ
on him if he sleeps
ἡ ἐπιχείρησις ἔσται.”
the attack will be.”

ὡς δὲ ἤρτυσαν τὴν ἐπιβουλήν,
When they had prepared the plot,
νυκτὸς γενομένης
when night had fallen
(οὐ γὰρ ἐμετίετο ὁ Γύγης,
(for Gyges was not released,
οὐδέ οἱ ἦν ἀπαλλαγὴ οὐδεμία,
nor was there any means of deliverance,
ἀλλ᾽ ἔδεε ἤ αὐτὸν ἀπολωλέναι
but either he had to die
ἢ Κανδαύλεα)
or Candaules)
εἵπετο ἐς τὸν θάλαμον τῇ γυναικί,
he followed the woman into the chamber,
καί μιν ἐκείνη,
and after she
ἐγχειρίδιον δοῦσα,
had given him a dagger,
κατακρύπτει ὑπὸ τὴν αὐτὴν θύρην.
she hid him behind the same door.

καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα
And after that,
ἀναπαυομένου Κανδαύλεω
as Candaules slept,
ὑπεκδύς
he stole out
τε καὶ ἀποκτείνας αὐτὸν
and killed him.
ἔσχε καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα
Gyges then had and the lady
καὶ τὴν βασιληίην Γύγης
and the kingship.

τοῦ καὶ Ἀρχίλοχος ὁ Πάριος
Of him Archilochus of Parus,
κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν χρόνον γενόμενος
who lived about the same time
ἐν ἰάμβῳ τριμέτρῳ ἐπεμνήσθη.
made mention in iambic verses.

ἔσχε δὲ τὴν βασιληίην
So he obtained the kingship,
καὶ ἐκρατύνθη
and was confirmed in it
ἐκ τοῦ ἐν Δελφοῖσι χρηστηρίου.
by the Delphic oracle.

ὡς γὰρ δὴ οἱ Λυδοὶ
For when the Lydians
δεινόν ἐποιεῦντο
were indignant about
τὸ Κανδαύλεω πάθος
the harm of Candaules
καὶ ἐν ὅπλοισι ἦσαν,
and took up arms,
συνέβησαν ἐς τὠυτὸ
they did agree,
οἳ τε τοῦ Γύγεω στασιῶται
the soldiers of Gyges
καί οἱ λοιποὶ Λυδοί,
and the other Lydians
ἤν μὲν τὸ χρηστήριον ἀνέλῃ
that if the oracle should ordain
μιν βασιλέα εἶναι Λυδῶν,
him king of the Lydians,
τόν δὲ βασιλεύειν,
then he would reign,
ἤν δὲ μή,
but if not,
ἀποδοῦναι ὀπίσω
then he would give back
ἐς Ἡρακλείδας τὴν ἀρχήν.
the kingship to the Heraclidae.

ἀνεῖλέ τε δὴ τὸ χρηστήριον
So did ordain the oracle,
καὶ ἐβασίλευσε οὕτω Γύγης.
and Gyges thus became king.
τοσόνδε μέντοι εἶπε ἡ Πυθίη,
However, the Pythian priestess said
ὡς Ἡρακλείδῃσι τίσις ἥξει
that for the Heraclidae there would come revenge
ἐς τὸν πέμπτον ἀπόγονον Γύγεω.
on Gyges’ fifth descendent.

τούτου τοῦ ἔπεος Λυδοί
To that word the Lydians
τε καί οἱ βασιλέες αὐτῶν
and their kings
λόγον οὐδένα ἐποιεῦντο,
paid no regard
πρὶν δὴ ἐπετελέσθη.
before it was fulfilled.

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